Design, Promotion, and Dissemination of
Energy-Efficient Stoves
Project Evaluation Report
August 2001


For Eritrea, fuel wood and other biomass is the dominant form of energy supply.  Approximately 70% of Eritrea’s primary energy comes from biomass sources with the majority being used for cooking in the household sector.   Yet at the same time the supplies of fuel wood are rather scarce.  The scarcity of biomass supply comes from a combination of factors including a semi-arid climate, the destruction brought by the 30-year independence war, frequent droughts and the growing land use and population pressures.

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the progress of the improved efficiency stove design, promotion and dissemination program of the Eritrean Department of Energy and the Energy Research and Training Center (ERTC)


The improved efficiency stove design promotion and dissemination program is meant to provide the most cost and resource efficient solutions to national energy supply needs through national investment in improved end-use efficiency.  Because, in Eritrea the largest amount of energy use is from biomass resources, the focus of the program has been in this sector.  Additionally the largest energy end-use in Eritrea is the cooking of the traditional bread taita (or injera), improving the efficiency of this end use has been the major focus of the project efforts.


In 1995 the ERTC began its research and development programs in improved mogogos.  The initial research involved taking tests and measurements of various types of mogogos as part of evaluating which design solutions are most effective in increasing efficiency.  A physics student of the University of Asmara to “reduce his mothers electric bill”, launched the initial formal research as a senior thesis project.  Over the subsequent years the research moved to the larger problem of improving wood and dung mogogos for rural use.   By early 1999, a design that was adapted from research during the liberation war was revised and tested.  The new design involved adding a chimney to the mogogo, and air control flap, a closed firebox with door with two-layer insulated walls, and an air inlet and ash trap in the bottom from which air enters during the fuel burning process.  The first field test was made in Damba village in approximately November 1999.  In December 1999, representatives from the Eritrea Technical Exchange Project of the International Collaborative for Science Education and the Environment (ETE/ICSEE) visited and agreed to provide approximately $50,000 as an initial grant in expanding the dissemination and field-testing of the mogogo.  This report provides an evaluation of the field-testing and promotion program from March 2000 to August 2001.

The initial donation of US$50,000 was made in approximately March of 2000.  The donation was made at a time that the conflict with Ethiopia was very intense.  And in May of 2000 the Ethiopians launched the third offensive of the conflict in which they invaded up to 100 kilometers into Eritrean territory.   In spite of the war and conflict the mogogo project proceeded, but with some delay in the implementation schedule.

Project Results:

From March 2000 to August 2001, the portion of the efficient stove program funded by the Eritrea Technical Exchange has resulted in over 3000 stoves being installed in 15 villages at a cost of approximately $25 per stove.

Village-level Implementation:

During the course of the program, the introduction of the stoves at the village-level involved a negotiation between the ERTC and the villages with regards to cost-sharing, i.e. what fraction of the cost would be borne by the ERTC and what fraction of the coast would b borne by the villagers or the individual households.

Finances and Leverage:

The ETE/ICSEE made one lump sum payment to the ERTC in approximately March 2001.

One of the big influences of the funding was as an initial bridge payment, which provided a successful demonstration so that other funders have contributed to the continuation and growth of the improved stove program.  As an indicator of the increased importance and acceptance of the improved stove program, the UN has made a pledge of 1.26 million over the next several years for the program, in order to expand it from approximately 3000 to 36,000 households.

Efficiency Testing:

During the course of the project, the ERTC made a series of efficiency tests of the both the traditional and improved mogogos.

Acceptance of New Stoves:

Acceptance of the high efficiency stoves is wide-spread, but not universal.  In order to gauge acceptance, benefits and social reaction to the new higher efficiency mogogos, approximately 22 interviews were conducted in 8 villages with households that both had new mogogos and refused the new mogogos, and with households that have had the mogogos for a couple years to just having some under construction.   The acceptance of the new stoves is very high.  And the primary benefit for the new mogogos is the reduced smoke (which eliminates stinging eye problems) and increased ease of cooking.  Fuel savings is the second most important benefit.   Additional benefits might include better quality injera, labor savings from fuel collection, keeping up with neighbors who have the better stoves, and better ash for fertilizer or more dung for fertilizer.  The fuel savings goes to increased dung for fertilizer, reduced labor for collection, increased dung supplies for sharing, increased fuel for other household uses, or reduced fuel costs.  Labor saved goes into other household activities or better visiting time and guest hosting conditions (e.g. elimination of smoke allows one to entertain guests and cook at the same time).

Project Benefits/Costs:

As mentioned in the section on project results, the approximate per/stove cost was about $25/stove.  The average stove saves approximately 250 kilograms of wood or dung per year per household.  Market prices of wood are approximately $8 per 100 kilograms.  So the payback time of the stoves based on fuel savings only is a little over one year at market prices.   Labor saving may be about 0.25 to 0.5 hours per day or about 100 hours per year.  At rural labor rates of $1 per day ($0.125/hour) this is about $12.50/year of labor savings, giving a payback time of about 2 years. Additional benefits of the stoves may include a reduction of lower respiratory infections among children of 20-45%. The combined social benefits of the stoves are likely to be equivalent to a social payback time of a few months.
Reference for Quantitative Health Benefits:
Majid Ezzati & Daniel Kammen, "Acute respiratory infection and indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in Kenya: an exposure-response study", The Lancet, Volume 358, pages 619 624, August 25, 2001.

APPENDIX A: Village Interviews

As part of the mogogo evaluation, we preformed a series of interviews of different households in different villages in which the project was conducted.  In this appendix we present the results of these interviews.  The interviews were fairly free-form we present answers to those questions that were asked.  Some questions were skipped as they did not seem particularly relevant. And sometimes questions were added.  Our goal was to capture the range of diverse reactions to the project in a few interviews, rather than measure a particular parameter with high accuracy.

Discussion with Debesai Gebrehiwot of ERTC

Debesai notes some problems with new mogogos such as:

They may be smoky if the flue is not constructed to facilitate the upward draft.
The fire-grate is sometimes installed upside-down so that the holes clog.
Sometimes there is difficulty installing the heavy concrete chimney pipes through the roof of the traditional hidmo house.

Village A:  may lbus  (Mai Lebus)  2001-07-29

120 houses, 160 installed mogogos, and 190 total mogogos.

House A-1

(1) New mogogo was obtained just before Easter of 2001.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 6 children.
(3) about 15-20 Injera are cooked once every 4 days.  They also cook a qiCa at the end of each Injera cooking session.  They also cook qiCa periodically on the moqlo, and once every two weeks they will cook 10 Injera for sewa on the moqlo.
(4) Cow dung is the primary fuel.
(5) Currently they use 0.8 baskets of straw/dung patties in a cooking session.  Before they used about two such baskets.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves when the project was organized.
(7) The got the mogogo because it is much better, and not smokey, but…Note: at first they did not want the new mogogo, but after they saw it in another house, they wanted both the new mogogo and the moqlo.
(8) The good things about the new mogogo are less fuel consumption and less smoke.
(9) No problems with the new mogogo.
(10) They collect dung every day, and it takes about 8 days to collect about 10 pieces.  Compared to the old mogogo, they have the same amount of work but now more dung is saved.
(11) The old mogogo was very smoky, people would have to leave the cooking area and it turned everything black.
(12) Note: there are now some brown spots on the wall, but it is not black.
(15) They show the new mogogo to guests, and when people ask how they got it, they say it is luck.
(16) The saved dung is used for fertilizer and given to others who ask for dung because they do not have a cow.
(17) The woman of the house has a fairly intense cough and is quite thin

House A-2

New mogogo + moqlo

(1) New mogogo was obtained in January they say, but actually it was two weeks before Easter
(2) Household members are mother, father and 9 children.
(3) about 30 Injera and 2 qiCa are cooked once every 3 days.   They also cook qiCa once per week on the moqlo
(4) Cow dung and wood are their fuel.
(5) Currently they use one basket of dung patties in a cooking session and 3 sticks of wood, 2cm diameter by two feet.  Before they used about two baskets of dung with the wood.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves when it was demonstrated in the village
(7) The got the mogogo because as described in the community meeting, it uses less fuel and makes less smoke.  They took volunteers in the community meeting with the volunteers determined by their capacity to assist the project.
(10) They collect dung early every morning about one hour to one half hour every day.  They collect about 15 paddies per day and use it for mogogo, tsebhi, and hot water for washing clothes.  The hot water is heated on a three stone fire.
(13) They use a charcoal stove for heating the house.
(15) Guests come and ask about the mogogo and they say it uses less fuel and has no smoke.  The guests then say they want one.  The guests come from different places like Asmara and Dandir.
(16) Now they make fewer dried dung patties and keep more dung for fertilizer.
(17) Health is good for the past year.
(18) –

House A-3
New mogogo and moqlo

(2) Household members are mother, father and 3 children.
(3) 10 Injera and one qiCa are cooked every four days
(4) Cow dung is the fuel
(5) Currently they use 1 basket of dung (10-12 pieces) in a cooking session.  Before they used about thirty pieces.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves on the radio about it being used in villages around Asmara on dmSa Hafax.
(7) With the local government meeting they got information and the government said it would be helpful.  And on the radio they heard the villagers speak for themselves about the benefits of the new mogogo.
(8) The good things about the new mogogo are that there is no smoke, it is economic, they don’t have to worry about spoiling the house with smoke, and it is safe for the children.
(9) Problems with the new mogogo: there was a leak at the roof with the chimney but that has been fixed/patched.
(10) They collect dung every day about one hour per day when possible.
(11) The old mogogo was so smoky that you could not enter the room when cooking
(12) The new mogogo is clean, and they repainted and no smoke damage.
(13) They heat with a small stove (fornello).
(15) In the neighboring villages, many people say that they need it.  On holidays and other occasions they visit and ask about the new mogogo when they visit.
(16) She saves some time from collecting dung and does other work with saved time.
(17) Health is good and has been good
(18) With old mogogo eyes watered while cooking and the eyes would be stung and upset by the old mogogo’s smoke.

Village B: `adi Hare  2001-07-29

100 – 150 houses, 500-750 inhabitants.  20 houses have new mogogos under construction, and the project was begun two weeks ago (about July 15, 2001).
About 10 people are trained.  ERTC provides ceramic firebox blocks, fire-grate, chimney, door, air valve and chimney rain cover.

House B-1

(1) Started making new mogogo a couple of weeks ago, not yet finished.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 2 children.
(3) About 10 Injera are cooked once every 3 days.
(4) Wood is fuel
(5) Currently they use 4 to 5 large pieces of wood per injera cooking session.  The large pieces are 1.5 m by 10-15 cm diameter and they also make charcoal out of the wood they use.  For all uses, they buy one quintal every two weeks for all uses Note: day labor is about 30 Nakfa per day.
(17) They note some lung problem

House B-2

Two houses sharing a mogogo cooking shed.  New mogogo under construction

(2) Two households use stove. Owner family has five people, and other is a couple of two.
(3) Every three days there is a cooking session that produces about 15 Injera
(4) Wood is the fuel
(5) In one session they use three pieces 2-3 inches in diameter and one meter long.

House B-3

(1) New mogogo is under construction.
(2) Household members are 12 in total.
(3) One cooking session every three days with 15 Injera and 2 qiCa produced
(4) Wood is the fuel
(5) They use four pieces of wood that are four feet (1.3m) by six inches in diameter (15 cm diameter).  Wood costs about 80 Nakfa per quintal
(7) They are constructing a new mogogo because it will save money on wood.  They have not seen such a stove, but those doing the demonstrations say it has benefits.

Village C: `adi wegri

150 houses, (150x5 = 450 people)
20 mogogos started
project began on 2001-07-17
expected finish in two months
10 people trained
village provides labor, sand, clay and mogogo plate
ERTC provides firebox bricks, fire-grates, chimney pipe, metal doors, and air valve.

House C-1

(1) House with old mogogo in shed in back.
(2) Household members are father and 6 children.
(3) about 30 Injera are cooked once every 3 days.  They also cook a qiCa at the end of each Injera cooking session.
(4) Wood is the fuel.
(5) Currently they use 20 pieces of wood, 1-3 inches in diameter and 2-3 feet per session.
(7) They do not get the new mogogo because they are renting the house and it is not worth it.
(11) They do not like the smoke with the old mogogo.
(17) No health problems

House C-2

(1) No new mogogo yet, but they are making one in compound
(2) Household members are two adults and three children
(3) about 10 Injera are cooked twice per week.
(4) Wood is the main fuel, sometimes dung.
(5) Currently they use three pieces 1.5 meters long if they are large (10-15 cm diameter)
(6) They first heard about the new stoves about one month ago when the women from the village told them about it.  They believe the benefits because it was proved in another village and seen by people.
(7) --
(8) With the old mogogo you can cook anytime.
(9) But the old mogogo produces a lot of smoke.
(10) Their family provides them with wood which costs 90 Nakfa/quintal.  The family does complain about the price of wood.
(11) The old mogogo is very smoky
(17) Their health is OK.

Village D:  kuxet  2001-08-03

House D-1

(1) New mogogo was obtained 4 to 5 months ago.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 8 children.
(3) about 30 Injera are cooked once every 4-5 days.  They also cook two qiCa per day when there isn’t any injera and one qiCa per day when there is injera.
(4) Mostly cow dung is the fuel and if they find wood, they use it.  Buying wood is expensive, 120 Nakfa per quintal.  Normally they use a combination of sawdust and cow dung or donkey dung.
(5) They use one basket of saw dust and a batch of dried cow dung for one cooking session now.  They provided and example.  The dung weighed 3.4 kg, and the sawdust weighed 3.5 kg (as measured fairly carefully on a home scale).
(6) They first heard about the new stoves when a nearby house did a prototype.  When she saw it, she tried to build herself and then the project came
(7) They got the mogogo because first of all there is no smoke, second, it is quite economical, and third, the quality of the injera is even better.
NOTE: Daughter build a stove in her house in her husband's village.  She was able to get most of the parts on the market except the grate.  For that, she made it out of cement with metal wire re-inforcing and random holes.  She made the conical ash trap by using the conical mogogo lid upside-down as guide.
(8,10) Their dung is purchased with one wheelbarrow of fresh dung costing 4 Nakfa.  It makes 15 pads.  5 pads measured 3.4 kilograms.  15 pads last three sessions with sawdust supplementing them
Labor saved with the new mogogo comes from the less smoke and better burning. This allows one to cook injera and do other things at the same time.  With the old mogogo you had to stay to blow air on the fire, but now you can walk away and it burns well. You also do not have to worry about the kids.
Cooking time is now “1/2 hour” compared to “2 hours” before.
(15) A lot of people come and are surprised by the new mogogo.  They ask about it.
(17,18) Health has been good.
(19) Why do some people not get the new mogogo?  Some people don’t understand the new mogogo or out of not wanting to contribute the local labor.  If it is built for them they are willing.  A few households have old people who are willing to remain without the new mogogo, but almost all of the young householders try to get it.  Plus, for the older households who is going to do the labor?  Once enough people have the new mogogo the others will want to join in.  You can find the appropriate stones for construction if you search for them.
(20) What does the government have to provide?  If all components are in the market people can do it themselves. The fire-grate and air valve are missing now

House D-2

(1) New mogogo was made two years ago.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 5 children.
(3) about 25 Injera are cooked once per week.  They also cook a qiCa at the end of each Injera cooking session.  They also cook qiCa periodically on the moqlo.
(4) wood and dung. They buy pieces.  Dung is 2 Nakfa per wheel barrow, one wheelbarrow provides 6-7 dry pieces of dung.
(5) Currently they use 5 pieces of dung per session with some small pieces of wood and sawdust. They don’t know how much they used before.  As measured on home scale, 3.2 net kilograms of wood, and 2.5 net kilograms of dung are used per session now.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves from the home economics section of the Ministry of Agriculture.
(8) The good things about the new mogogo are no smoke.
(9) No problems with new mogogo.
(10) They buy dung at 2 Nakfa per fresh wheelbarrow that produces 6-7 dry pieces.  Time to cook injera is 3 hours.
(12) The new mogogo is good because it has no smoke
(13) They heat house with fornello stove.
(15)  Many people ask how to build the new mogogo and they want to have one.  They measure it and try to build themselves, but the government campaign facilitates it better.

House D-3

(1) They have an old mogogo
(2) Household members are mother, father and 3 children.
(3) About 20 Injera are cooked once every 3-4 days.
(4) They use agricultural residues and dung for fuel.
(5) Currently they use 10 pieces of dung and one sack of agricultural residues per cooking session.  Two pieces of dung weigh 2.0 kilos on a home scale.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves when the project was started
(7) The did not get the new mogogo because they rent and the owners do not repair the house.  The owner is doing national service, they rent, and the mother works (we interviewed the daughter, a student, visibly disturbed by the smoke while cooking)
(8) The new mogogos have less smoke
(9) As renters they have difficulty getting it because of the landlord.
(10) Labor of cooking? After 1.5 hours she is 2/3’s done.
(15) Practically all of the villagers now have the new mogogo and only they are without.

 Village E:  zazega

965 houses, (Population 2410 fem. 2613 male)
425 mogogos done
project began on January 2001
expected finish in 2-3  months after the rainy season
village provides labor, sand, clay and mogogo plate
ERTC provides firebox bricks, fire-grates, chimney pipe, metal doors, and air valve.

House E-1

(1) New mogogo was obtained September 2000.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 3 teenagers and 2 small children.
(3) About 16-17 Injera are cooked once every 3 days.  They also cook a qiCa at the end of each Injera cooking session.  They also cook 2 qiCa every morning and evening.
(4) Cow dung and crop residues.
(5) Currently they use 3-4 dung patties (40 cm X 20 cm X 5 cm) along with a few kilos of small branches and sticks in a cooking session.  Before they used 10-15 dung patties and one sack of goat dung.
(6) They first heard about the new stoves 3-4 months before construction from those who got training at the Energy Center.
(7) The got the mogogo because they were informed that it was helpful.  Before they built it, one or two who tried it before helped convince them.
(8) The good things about the new mogogo are: First the injera is quite good, and second it is healthy and comfortable because it is smokeless
(9) No problems with the new mogogo except there is not wood.  If they use wood, it is very efficient.  Right now they use fragments and dung.
(10) They collect dung 2-3 hours twice per week now.  Used to be every morning.  They have extra dung because the mogogo uses less.   If she makes dung for burning, she doesn’t use it for fertilizer.  She uses the saved dung for burning for other purposes like qiCa and sauces.
(15) Everybody is asking about the new mogogo and how to make one.  She made one mogogo for her daughter, got the fire-grate from a woman in town who makes fire-grates.
(20) Their question…they are happy about the new mogogo, but how about other things now like light, food, etc.

House E-2

Meeting with the local fire grate maker in zazega:

(1) Started working on fire grates for new mogogo’s about two years ago but she recently stopped because of her employment in agriculture.
(2) Before making grates she was working in agriculture, but was laid off.  She needed to do something to support herself and her children so she learned how to make the mogogo plates. When the ERTC began the new mogogo project in the town, Debesai asked for a survey of the mogogo plate manufacturers and She is one of them.  The Ministry of Agriculture home economics person asked if she could make some plates and so she decided to make them about 10 at a time.  She has made a total of a little over 40 grates. Now she does not make the grates, first of all because it is the rainy season, second there is a lack of space, so it is not clear she will be able to resume after the rainy season.
Is there demand?  Before people needed the plates, but because the ERTC offered to provide materials for the whole village, there is not much need from the people.  Plus there is the space problem.
For the ERTC, the purchase price for the plates is about 20 Nakfa + 5 Nakfa transport or about 25 Nakfa total.  The production price that is worthwhile for her is about 25-35 Nakfa.
Production process: Getting the clay requires about 2 hours of digging and the transport of a donkey which produces about 4 jerrycans of 20 liters each of clay.  In total this is about ½ day of work (8AM to 1PM).
Sand requires about 3 hours to fetch for about one jerrycan of sand.  Another hour is required to clean sand and separate large medium and small grains. Medium sand is used in construction of grate.
Water is boiled and boiled water and clay is put in a barrel for one week to ferment.
With the fermented clay one then starts mixing in sand and kneads sand/clay mixture for about two hours.
Then she makes the shaped grate, using a string with the measured diameter to get the circle right, and checking the thickness with a stick.
The plate are then dried slowly in the house without exposure to wind.
The shape is polished with a special stone, like the stone used in jebina production.
She covers the shaped grates with sacks and waits three weeks, checking each piece for cracks, and polishing out the cracks if she finds any, or throwing out the piece and reshaping it if it is too bad.
There is a final day of exposing the grate to the sun.
And then finally they are fired with fire above and below, and dung as fuel, one after the other with three per day, or three hours per grate.

Clay is available, but quite a distance from the village.

Of the over 40 grates she made 13 were for the village and others went to other villages.

 House E-3

She did not do the new mogogo because there is not the right space in her kitchen for putting the new mogogo. She does not want to have to restructure the shelves built into the wall.

(1) Last year she was involved when the prototype was presented.  She started working on it February 2001.  She has been part of a two-person team that has built 20 stoves in other people’s houses.
(2) Household members are mother, father and 7 children.
(3) About 10-12 Injera are cooked once every 5 days.  They also cook one qiCa three times per day
(4) Cow dung is the the fuel.
(5) Currently they use 15 dung patties in a cooking session that lasts 2-3 hours.  They use 4 pieces to make a quiCa.  A sample of three dung patties weighed 2.2 kilograms on a home scale.
(6) She first heard about the new stoves as part of the village organizing
(7) She did not get the new stove because of space problems.
(11) When there is a wind, the mogogo smoke fills the house.
(17) She states that health is OK, but she has a cough that she attributes to moisture in the fields.
(19) Who else is not getting mogogo and why?  Some who are not getting the mogogo say because they are not healthy and cannot bring the stones and other materials.  They say that the Ministry of Energy and Mines should provide both labor and materials. At the moment they did not want to pay.  Even though they have many problems they say it is not fair for them to spend money on the new mogogo project.

House E-4

(1) Last Easter they made the new mogogo
(2) father, mother, and 7 children are in the house.
(3) The students are out, so it used to be 20 injera twice per week, but now it is 10 injera once per week for two people.
(4) Wood and dung are the fuel, mostly dung.
(5) She uses two pieces of wood 1m by 5-10 cm in diameter, three pieces of cow dung and loose goats' dung
(6) She heard about the new mogogo when the prototype was done in the village.
(7) She did the new mogogo because the ERTC said it was important and its use is helpful.  It produces less smoke.  The quality of the injera is the same.
(8) Did a marriage with the mogogo and it worked well.  She can also have guests over and cook while entertaining.
(10) It takes three hours to collect wood in the field about once per week.
(15) Everybody who sees the mogogo wants to do the same.
(19) Why do some people not do the mogogo? Problems like money are the reason.  Labor is 100 Nakfa.  Not every individual is capable of doing it themselves.  If you want everyone to do it then the support should include labor and materials. She is one of the skilled people so she did her labor herself.

House E-5: Administrator

There are about 1500 houses in zazega, but only 965 that are open and active.  Most of the closed ones are for people that are in asmera.  Population is 2410 female and 2613 male.
425 houses have the new mogogo.
The project has been going for seven months.
When materials are provided they will cover all houses.
Now that about one half are done they can probably finish all with just materials provided, they can get everyone to share on the labor. There may be some that remain undone, and as administrator it is possible to order help for them.
The remaining time, for those who can do it themselves (labor) about one month, while for those who need help it will take longer.

For here the new mogogo is good for the lack of smoke, and now she doesn’t have to keep blowing on the fuel to restart it.  She does 10 injera per session with 7 dung patties, while before she had to use 20 dung patties, and it took time restarting the fire.

Village F:  Se`ada kristian

About 1000 houses
House F-1

(1) Got new mogogo December 2000.
(2) Mother, Father and 5 children are in the house.
(3) 10 injera and 2 qiCa are cooked two times per week.
(4) The fuel is dung.
(5) 10 pieces or one heaping basket per session.  Example basket of dung weighed 4.1 kilograms on home scale.  They say with old mogogo they needed three baskets of dung.
(6) They heard about the new mogogo three ways: One when the construction started, two when some skilled person from the village found out about the demonstration project at damba, and three when they saw it on television.  How did they ask to do the project? When some people from the women’s association and home economics section of the Ministry of Agriculture came and asked if they wanted to do the project, they said yes.
(9) No problems with the construction of the mogogo.
(10) She has cows so they finish collecting by 7am, and making 15 paddies of dung takes 15 minutes.  The time saved from the cooking of the injera: now that the fire doesn’t go out and have to be restarted, it is quicker, about 1 hour.  Before it took about 2.5 hours, and smoke was a problem
(16) Savings of dung will go to those who have scarcity, those who are having a wedding, or those who come and beg.  People around who have marriage party can cook here.   Time saved cooking injera goes to visiting, washing clothes, and fixing hair.
(17) Health? Eyes are getting healthier.
(19) What about old people and renters who have difficulty of making contribution to new mogogo construction?  Already when they have seen the new mogogo, they are starting to get involved and are asking to be included in the next phase.  In the list for the next phase 150 renters are included.

House F-2

(1) The house has an old mogogo.
(2) Father, mother, relative and 4 children in house.
(3) They cook about 20 injera, once per week.
(4) Dung is the primary fuel, with perhaps a sack of goat or broken dung with the dung paddies.
(5) They use 7 paddies, and 1 basked of broken dung.  Broken dung weighted on home scale is 2.2 kilograms, 4 paddies weigh 2.0 kilograms.  Total use per session is 5.7 kg dung/20 injera.  Uses some kerosene to help burn the dung paddies.  Kerosene is 3 Nakfa/liter.  They use 20 liters per month total.
(7) Reason for getting new stove, the daughter doesn’t know, but the mother is on the list for a new stove because of smoke.
(10) Collecting dung takes no time (cows in house). Mother makes dung paddies.
(11) Smoke is not bad with current stove, it is not heavy (kerosene used to help burn dung).

Village G: `adi zamir (and also `adi zeban’angb and weQrti)

This project is actually funded by others and not ETE.
Are doing 13 demonstration mogogos
Materials for 330 stoves are prepared
131 households, 553 people, `adi zamir
142 households, 694 people, `adi zban’angb
160 households, 887 people, weQrti
2001-07-19 began the mogogo project
Plan to finish 100% of houses in thirty days for `adi zamir and 30 days for each village thereafter
End of September, all will be finished.
They are all working together on the project
20 people are trained in the first two villages
Government provides valves, fire-grates, cement chimney pipes, transport, door, chimney rain cover, and ceramic blocks for building firebox.
All labor is locally provided.
Those not able to provide labor will get it from collaborating villagers.
Why are they organized to do everybody?  First there is a wood problem.  They have seen the poject in damba and every house wants to be like damba.  They see the health issues and they want to get rid of the smoke that stings the eyes and creates a cough.  They know every house needs it so that will help for those houses that cannot do it themselves.

House G-1

(1) They started building the new mogogo two weeks ago, but currently still have the old one.
(2) Father, mother and 3 children
(3) They cook 12-13 injera once every 3 days and 1 qiCa.
(4) They use dung mostly and some wood.
(5) We weighed and example fuel of 11 pieces of dung at 6.4 kilograms, and small semi-wet sticks of 3.5 kilograms.
(6) They heard about the new mogogo when damba did its project.
(7) The most important reasons for getting the new mogogo was for the health and the eyes.  Sometimes people are losing their sight from the stinging and smoke.  The new mogogo also lowers the consumption of wood and they greatly favor it.  Also with special ceremonies like weddings now one woman can do the whole preparation because it is easier and there is no smoke and there is not so much fuel consumed. Before it had to be several who would take turns.  Now all of the women come, and only one has to cook while the others can play wedding music.  They saw this in damba.
(8) As for problems, because damba started earlier they have only the mogogo and not the three stoves combined (mogogo, the small stove for SebHi, and the moqlo for qiCa combined).  Even if the ERTC makes the stove better, they cannot wait for changes.
(10) Wood collection takes from morning til noon from the field and they only get small pieces.  They collect about once per week…and maybe there is some forbidden cutting because of the shortage.  Dung takes no time to prepare with 5 paddies prepared every morning.  They also have to collect goat dung that they burn instead of using for fertilizer.  They also use dung fuel for making sewa bread once per month, and they heat water for washing once every three days in parallel with injera cooking.
(15) Talking to others about the stoves:  This is a big issue.  In the subzone administration meeting there was a fight about which village was the most ready for the mogogo project. And why are not they having the new mogogo.  ERTC gives a list of the requirements, and then they see which is the most ready.  Our village got the project because our village was ready to even pay something to contribute to the project and because we will do every house. What fraction of rural villages is almost ready?  Of 22000 rural people in the subzone, about half are about ready to do the mogogo project.  Another village of about 200 houses is about ready.
(16) The first savings will be from not having to kill time collecting wood.  Also all of the goat dung can be used for fertilizer.  In damba they use the remaining goat dung that is not burned and take it by car to the fields. 3-4 houses do this jointly to rent the car.

House G-2

(1) Started building new mogogo two weeks ago, but currently using old mogogo.
(2) Mother, Father, and 3 children in house
(3) They cook 20 injera, once per week.
(4) Dung, wood, and kerosene.
(5) 10 paddies plus small pieces of dung weighed at 5.4 kg on home scale, plus 1.3 kilograms of wood (two pieces 1.5m by 3-4 cm) and some kerosene initially.
(6) They heard about the new mogogo when damba constructed theirs.
(7) They are getting the new mogogo to get rid of smoke.
(10) They spend three hours collecting wood, one day per week.
(15) They don’t talk to others about the new stove.
(16) Fuel savings will be used for other household uses.

Village H: damba 2001-08-05

The first demonstration village

House H-1

(2) Three people in the house
(3) She cooks 7-8 injera every three days.
(4) She uses two baskets of dung  and no wood now.  One basket of dung was weighed at 3.1 kg.  She used to use the equivalent of 5-6 small baskets and some wood.
(16) She has used the new mogogo for almost three years.  What does she do with the savings.  She collects less dung, and when she makes separation of dung for burning and dung for fertilizer she can put more for fertilizer.

House H-2

This house is hosting a group of elder men drinking sewa and talking on Sunday.
We do a free-form interview and ask about general changes they have seen with the new mogogo.
Several men responded mentioning the smoke.  How the smoke really changes the conditions and now none of the women are scratching their eyes from smoke irritation.
Now if they get electricity, their village will be like the capital asmera.
Also there is a saving of labor for collecting wood.
And the ashes out of the mogogo are combined with fresh dung for fertilizer to put into the field.
We ask about the affect on agriculture.
If a mixture of ash and dung fertilizes the land it gets to be a good crop.
Do other villages see the affect on agriculture?
The fertilizer has been used for centuries, but there is not enough goats or cows and with the shortage of goats and cows there is a shortage of fertilizer.
Other villages have the same amount of fertilizer?
It depends, it changes from person to person based on the individual’s activity.
How does the fertilizer use compare between this year and previous years?
We have told you generally the use of fertilizer, and we don’t dare to say about the details.  In general the land is better fertilized than not fertilized, and every household uses manure on at least one field.
Is it possible to use too much fertilizer on a field?
First with only a few domestic animals, there is not enough fertilizer for our needs.  As for the mogogo, we use the ashes mixed with dung.  But the important thing about the new mogogo is now our houses are clean from the smoke, we can put our clothes anywhere, and we don’t have to cough from the smoke.
(Note: at this point they seemed a bit irritated about all of the questions about the fertilizer supply and wanted to bring us back to the real benefit which is the smoke reduction).